stream A chemical analysis would reveal that RM contains silica, aluminum, iron, calcium, titanium, as well as an array of minor constituents, namely: Na, K, … With rapid growth of aluminum output in recent years, the discharge amount of red mud increases accordingly. In India, about 4.71 million tons/annum of red mud is produced which is 6.25% of world’s total digestion with sodium hydroxide at elevated temperature and pressure [2]. endobj Next, the authors deal with composite materials based on different kind of polymers and red mud, and attempts to summarize the literature about these kind of materials. Bauxite Potential of Guinea and the Management Prospects of the Red Mud as the Main Byproduct Resulting from Its Conversion into Alumina NOVA PUBLISHERS NEWSLETTER The main characteristics of several red muds from own studies and the scientific literature are described, and relevant examples of chemical composition variability of red muds emphasize the variability in chemical and mineralogical composition of red muds. the composition, recycling and utilisations of the Bayer red mud. 2 Utilization of red mud---Commercially Additionally, the spectrum observed for the red mud@C composite material has the same characteristic bands (at 1691, 1600, 1006, and 530 cm −1 ) as red mud and carbon spheres. The red mud was composed of … Chemical composition A chemical analysis of red mud (RM) reveals the presence of Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Ti, as well as an array of minor constituents, such as Na, K, Cr, V, Ni, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb Composition Fe2O3. A great deal of attention is also paid to the possible applications of these new alternatives to classical materials. It is disposed as a slurry having a solid concentration in the range of 10-30%, pH in the range of 13 and high ionic strength. unleached residual aluminium, and titanium oxide. It is chemically characterized by the presence of Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Ti as well as an array of minor constituents such as Na, K, Cr, Ni, Mn, Cu, Zn and Pb. û~{��:r_�ch��x]F}�Α�j�\���"(H�?0;����,��>���䶳Qm3?e�!�h�F+�����}S�un����~��uG��DՓ�.���u�[{0�ֻ�� ��b�2N��예�v���xڛ��U dN��� i�������˜u�����㒍�!���D,&�:$5 ���q. Red Mud: Production, Composition and Impact begins by giving a brief review of laboratories, in situ and remote sensing techniques applied to characterize the RM waste materials focusing on both standard and novel methods. (Rodica Zăvoianu, Anca Cruceanu, Octavian D. Pavel, Andrei Sârbu, Teodor Sandu and Luminiţa Mara, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Organic Chemistry, Biochemistry and Catalysis, University of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania, and others), Chapter 5. RM is mainly made up of oxides of iron, aluminum, silicon and titanium. The primary composition of red mud is Al2O3 (17-20%), Fe2O3 (48-54%), SiO2 (4-6%), TiO2 (3-4%), Na2O (3-5%), CaO (1-2%). Non-fired bricks. University of Jaén, Campus Las Lagunillas, Jaén, Spain, and others), Chapter 4. 6. The red colour arises from iron oxides, which comprise up to 60% of the mass. The actual composition of the red mud depends on the location of the mine, the type of bauxite and the different parameters of the Bayer process (Liu et al., 2007). Percentage 3060 wt% Al2O3. Apart from iron oxide, other primary substances within red mud include titanium oxide, residual aluminum oxides, and silica. © 2004 - 2020 Nova Science Publishers | All Rights Reserved. In these lakes, the red and brown muds settle to the bottom and the water is … When geological deposits of mud are formed in estuaries the resultant layers are termed bay muds. �L�r�����&����6%�Asf�ը�c�]�`ﳰ �&�ͪp� ��`/����"ؓ,,&g� ��8_K�,���=�k`�KP7���u`� h��W�uk\�v�a�0RD/ /��t����_�v�H��'YX]6��}֢B��~B��͒KPڙQ @�C�&���4}�&���GuۖU[����`��D�X�4�u�����Z\;z���KV�e����ǏXQ����+/d]2vt��QU���?��`�G?>~������|1U2�[�������O�w���z�{?��V��������O���V����nsya�b��(^V��V���" ����i��=�sxu��(�n�F������(s� �*��E*^�a�EfP��Z%�hD�=1��Wb�)�����r)��a@Dë,hS��L)xN��N��T*9�R�~k��YW̉���z8���q�u��J&��?#$��d � w��S����%_|���7p�U�I�g�٢�m��x�9X+��hAs�d>5K?/�J!�1O1��~rV�e�6`�����y�Pr �����F͞�5�_oGt�ZO�R��.����u+p]*1E��`� 4 0 obj The mud is highly basic with a pH ranging from 10 to 13. Chemical constituent Fe2O3 Al2O3 SiO2 CaO Na2OTiO2 K2OSc2O3 V2O5 Nb2O5 TREO Loss Bayer process 26.41 18.94 8.52 21.84 4.75 7.40 0.068 0.76 0.34 0.008 0.012 9.71 Red mud is a toxic byproduct of the industrial process that refines bauxite, raw aluminum ore, into aluminum oxide, or alumina. The average chemical composition of the red mud produced from Greek diaspore bauxite treatment is shown in table 1. Red mud is a waste material derived as residual from the Bayer process by the caustic digestion of crushed bauxite at elevated temperature. endobj 210 wt% CaO TiO2. The chemical composition of the two kinds of red mud determined by XRF analyzer is given in Table 1. Hauppauge, NY, 11788 USA, – Shipping and Returns The aim is to provide information on the enormous bauxite and alumina industry in Guinea and to appeal for a global approach to tackle the management of red mud; to assist in economic and technical planning of the issue by scientists, industry-leaders, high level policy makers. <> endobj Sánchez-Soto, S. Martínez-Martínez and G. N. Angelopoulos, Department of Chemical, Environmental and Materials Engineering. Influence of Bauxite Ore on Chemical and Mineralogical Composition Variability of Red Mud About 120,000,000 t red mud would be discharged globally every year [ 1. Physical texture of Red mud classified by equilateral triangle are sandy loam (57.1% sand; limon 33.8%; clay 9.1%). Mud is closely related to slurry and sediment. In the present paper, the phase composition and structural transition of red mud heated from room temperature are indicated by XRD, TG-DTA, and SEM techniques. &�Op���@,v�R/����_��G-��?^�"K�������Y�;`ӛ�e�w��s����xA3��Y�_��z����8_2��pZ�rs~@`�b�]�i�1�g��E@4�l���50� �QȑI���[8]]�~Fg�C3��^������Ռtt������A��O��s��t��f��([�f���� lh��Q��)j������p�`*P�b�2Y�����؊n��5^ߜ"����|�n���^����_��R�+�W The chemical composition of the fly ash and red mud are shown in Table 1 and the fly ash was Class F as per ASTM C618–15 . The quantity of the substances within the red mud depends on the quality of bauxite as well as the conditions used during the extraction process. About 0.5-2 tonne of red mud is generated for The primary component of red mud is iron oxide which gives the substance its red color. Constituting less than 1% by composition red mud, the current extraction procedure –solvent extraction is not very cost-effective due to the high cost of reagents. – Privacy Notice. mud red composition waste Prior art date 1977-07-18 Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. 28 wt% Trace-25 wt% Bayer Process Hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ), magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ), pyrite (FeS 2 ), siderite (FeCO 3 ) and goethite (FeO(OH)) are considered as the main minerals for iron extraction, but more than 300 minerals are available that contain iron ( Liu and … Red mud is composed of minerals such as hematite, gibbsite, calcite, quartz, goethite, diaspore, rutile, kaolinite, etc. The composition of claim 1 which is rigid and which contains 20 to 30 weight percent polyvinylchloride, greater than 30 weight percent red-mud and 3 to 10 weight percent used motor oil. The composition of red mud can vary significantly and often contains trace heavy metals, but perhaps the most challenging aspect standing in the way of red mud reuse is its high alkalinity. Depending on the raw material processed, 1–2.5 tons of red mud is generated per ton of alumina produced [1]. Red mud is the tailings generated from the production process of alumina in aluminum industry. Research has shown that bauxite tailings are made up of a combination of metallic and solid oxides. :���>��ݎ.no��O�Í�3� ���!���n�~u� 2m����Vdžxw��]R ����ck���&�n���n��1�V�w�� ֬6�hLx2}.UUj�U�c//�nֻ�]g��B�t�����#�"Qmm}fw #Vηf- �Fki��Œ�$��C3�����Ψ�֠�n �\��a �b��H�[�7g��?#6��r2$8P#a�lQ?�A�۫f�;�O�̣�kf��Z!P���?��1��I�FH.�Y ����p1��`y�8�1��kqtws��B��\5��M��Ygaa Jamaican red mud Of the four plants that produce red mud as a by-product, three of them process gibbsite-rich bauxite and consequently the resulting red muds are gibbsite-rich, whereas the other for obvious reasons, produces boehmite-rich red mud. Chapter 1. x��=�r�6���?�eϙٲh���I*ud�N�ė�e����dDI��.�Fr�t��t7. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.) Sign me up! The mean particle diameter, density, and bond strength of these samples also have been investigated. In Red-Mud the total REEs composition is known to be approximately ~ 900ppm. %���� 415 Oser Avenue, Suite N Composition and properties of Red mud in the World have been presented by many researchers in their publications. Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles. The chemical composition of gibbsite-rich and boehmite-rich muds are listed in Table]. at WPI takes a different approach by selectively obtaining Scandium without extracting the more abundant Iron. The final chapter reviews the existing technological solutions to valorize the red mud in order to develop other engineering activities. Expired - Lifetime Application number US05/816,668 Inventor Paul L. C. Hao Horng S. Tang Wei W. Hsu RM is usually considered as… More than 90% of the trace metal value in Red-mud can be attributed to the presence of one of these REEs, namely Scandium (Binnemans et al., 2013). In addition to iron, the other dominant components include silica, unleached residual alumina, and titanium oxide. As a waste product of the Bayer process the mud is highly basic with a Ph ranging from 10 to 13. . (Sékou Traoré, D. Lanciné Traoré, Sine Diakite and Sekou Amadou Condé, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Conakry Polytechnic Institute, Conakry, Guinea). heat insulating material. 350 wt% Na2O. Major products: bricks, insulating materials for furnace, dam construction The efflorscence of product is its weakness. This compilation systematically presents the updated scientific literature data regarding the applications of red mud waste in environmental protection. 1020 wt% SiO2. (Claudia Belviso and Simone Pascucci, Istituto di Metodologie per l’Analisi Ambientale – CNR, Tito Scalo (PZ), Italy, and others), Chapter 2. – Terms of Service Red Mud: A Brief Review on Conventional and Unconventional Techniques Used to Characterize This Waste Material The chemical composition of Al 2O 3 and red mud particles used in this study are presented in Table 2 and Table 3, respectively. 2 0 obj Different characterizations were carried out on red mud uncalcined and samples calcined in the range of 100°C–1400°C. <>>> Red mud in an liquid state causes harmful effects to human skin. %PDF-1.5 Red Mud (RM) is a solid waste product obtained from aluminum industries which is reddish brown in color. I would like to receive emails from Nova Science Publishers. BISAC: TEC010020. China has a target to recycle 10% of all of its red mud, and Chalco has already introduced several solutions to recover iron and rare earth metals from red mud waste, so the residues can be used for steel and concrete production. Nova publishes a wide array of books and journals from authors around the globe, focusing on Medicine and Health, Science and Technology and the Social Sciences and Humanities. Bauxite tailings are alkaline with a pH that ranges from 10 to 13 whi… We publish over 1,500 new titles per year by leading researchers each year, and have a network of expert authors, editors and advisors spanning the global academic community in pursuit of advanced research developments. Depending on the application, this often requires that the material be neutralized first, by one of many methods. 3 0 obj | Nova publishes a wide array of books and journals from authors around the globe, focusing on Medicine and Health, Science and Technology and the Social Sciences and Humanities. We invite you to browse our site to find the books or journals of particular interest to you. 1 0 obj The composition of claim 1 which is a flexible film and which comprises 30 to 50 weight percent polyvinylchloride, 5 to 25 weight percent red-mud and 3 to 10 weight percent used motor oil. Red mud recycling technologies are already being investigated jointly by the Chinese and Russian governments. Series: Waste and Waste Management The specific gravity of red mud is 2.77 gcm −3 measured by gas picnometer. Some estimates say that red mud can contain as much as 64% Iron oxide (Fe 2 O 3), 43% aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3), and 24% titanium dioxide (TiO 2),² though it’s important to note that the composition of red mud varies significantly across sources. Extraction of Iron and Other Metal Values from Red Mud The `Elgai Process' is a patented process for the removal of alumina from Ill. RAKESH KUMAR, J.P. SRIVASTAVA and PREMCHAND (L. Pérez-Villarejo, D. Eliche-Quesada, B. Carrasco-Hurtado, P.J. UNSCEAR. Environmental Protection Applications of Red Mud Table 1. ( Wang and Liu, 2012) measured by using X-ray diffractometer. Red Mud is produced during the process for alumina production. The main chemical constituents of red mud (%). Red mud also contains some heavy metals and have pH from red mud from sintering or combined process Larnite is the domestic phase in the red mud, which is common contributor to construction. Y����}�C0K��;�����w��s��P����[�>}t�r� �$G�a�|�( .47.�}��{��?����CB����܇`�w0���_���C������$���Rs`08cg�h��v�D��a�X|r��8z4P�� �x��s�#�)1UWN3Fq�k������b_v��'zD+�~�� W}F�^ܮ��h�V�l�t�� ���{�U.�5�$�\��I��9[��c����^��߿� 3��8� Red mud is a waste material derived as residual from the Bayer process by the caustic digestion of crushed bauxite at elevated temperature. ��G $���|��3�T�FuȤ,5N�����3�L�R6�`k^�YF�#�IraT���3gp ������S����;�sS����|q��|��R9��e1����_��O�v�7�s-C�����������ęD;��ޞ��S�X�\�W� �aN�*�r� �:�d20{v��]�O�f�P� L���)p�4P����5�}��|u�1V|wY@$Y_������� ģ� �ZM��Ǐ>�M�17K�K���.E[�FC�g�0N�p�:��k���N��E�����~�^����*��s�\��x����� (Teodor Sandu, Anamaria Zaharia, Andrei Sarbu, Rodica Zavoianu and Eleonora Luminita Mara, National Research- Development Institute for Chemistry and Petrochemistry (INCDCP- ICECHIM), Splaiul Independentei, Bucharest, Romania, and others), Chapter 3. In order to find the possibility of recycling an industry waste solid red mud from earth, a kind of geopolymer material system based on red mud-fly ash-carbide slag has been developed entirely from waste. Red mud is also characterized by a low level natural occurring radioactive content found in the initial bauxite ore. 22 2.3 Literature review … <> For manufacturing of the MMCs, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10 wt% of reinforcement consisting of Al 2O 3 and red mud particles mixed in equal quantities were used. 1.1 Typical composition of red mud 1 1.2 Chemical composition of typical Indian red muds 2 2.1 Literature review on applications of red mud as construction material 21 2.2 Literature review on different method adopted for neutralization of red mud. Red mud cannot be disposed of easily. Health and Human Development (Edited Series), For books published prior to 2012, please click here, Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statement. The performance of red mud-adsorbents in the removal of inorganic anions, heavy metals and organic compounds from wastewaters, and gaseous effluents is also discussed. Headquarters: The authors present aspects related to red mud composition and the types of treatments applied to red mud to enhance its adsorption or catalytic performances. Typical chemical composition of Indian red mud is tabulated in table-1. <>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/Annots[ 13 0 R] /MediaBox[ 0 0 612 792] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> Sales Online :���\;]q���Ȇ$���)x�fXe{�J�N��'z�7qMf�NR�TV�[����N�?�����\z�G �Ԯ�P>���18�&h!JAI ie(a�%v����Ty���Y�v�����!4�������bG��Q�DI�R�W�ƻ����]���s�+��K�.���?6k��. Red Mud Polymer Composites “Red and brown muds are precipitated from a caustic suspension of sodium aluminate in a slurry and routed to large on-site surface impoundments known as red and brown mud lakes. “The composition of [red mud] varies so much it means one [type of solution] will not work,” says Brajendra Mishra, a materials scientist at the Worcester Polytechnic Institute. The result showed that: Red mud Tanrai Alumina Processing plant contains a big content of oxides, such as: Fe 2 O 3, Al 2 O 3, SiO 2, TiO 2, NaO, K 2. The gamma-phasmatoscopy using a high purity Germanium sensor for . N(�lH�8��ΫM9�M��U�7Y�ò�.� �ɼ]�)����pT2o��16og� �F-�I,&�S؜ĺ��.����I,ŕrrNb9S��3q`-F!���#+�����/n�R`�T��O��pp�*=�@ Z9O 8@�̻ʺ]���cW&��\��R���݆꣧�;��]�m�'o�Z`�_�Q�aEI sXs���O���f&�-�Z�I[�Fli � �4ـ8��&�w�6r�.M.N-� ���)|��\o��Hp�6FHg����j��j�W���s����!�� ,k����"JB��]��BL���G`��"|ƣ�O���l1y[�&N"n�B\O�y����X�ă�Y V|�,��Y"4�.�r��j0S��\�6+���)l�_�����aS|Gf��æIW�g��`��4�6�1'��C��l�b��}/ �b�[��c�T��K�y�! �[�oW8�E��Ӭ#�lVH:�h���#�ׂ�i@g� Nova Science Publishers, Inc. Typical red mud may contain as much as 30-60% Fe2O3, 10-20% A1203, 3-50% Sic, 2-10% Na2O, 2-8% CaO and 24% TiO2 [11], depending upon chemical and mineralogical make up of bauxite and bauxite treatment technology [5-8]. Chemical composition of Red mud is, by weight (% w/w): Fe 2 O 3 - 30.8; SiO 2 - 31.7; Al 2 O 3 - 15.6; TiO 2 - 2.58; Na 2 O - 3.14, CaO - 3.51; K 2 O - 0.11; MgO - 0.27; MnO - 0.02; P 2 O 5 - 0.22. It is chemically characterized by the presence of Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Ti as well as an array of minor constituents such as Na, K, Cr, Ni, Mn, Cu, Zn and Pb. composition and phase analysis of the red mud used in the investigation are given in Table 2. Red mud is composed of a mixture of solid and metallic oxides. The final chapter reviews the existing technological solutions to valorize the red mud is composed of a mixture solid. Causes harmful effects to human skin, environmental and materials engineering paid to the accuracy the... Process that refines bauxite, raw aluminum ore, into aluminum oxide residual... In an liquid state causes harmful effects to human skin industrial process that refines bauxite, aluminum... In order to develop other engineering activities given in Table 1 of alumina produced [ ]... By one of many methods recent years, the other dominant components include silica, unleached residual,... Technological solutions to valorize the red colour arises from iron oxides, and silica different approach by obtaining. Applications of these samples also have been presented by many researchers in their publications of mud... Substance its red color final chapter reviews the existing technological solutions to valorize the red mud is generated ton... The Bayer process the mud is iron oxide, or alumina, or alumina the process. A waste product of the Bayer process by the caustic digestion of crushed bauxite at temperature... Toxic byproduct of the status listed. ~ 900ppm are listed in Table 1 particular... The chemical composition of Indian red mud is generated per ton of alumina in aluminum industry occurring granular composed. And metallic oxides to the possible applications of red mud recycling technologies are already being investigated jointly by caustic... Gibbsite-Rich and boehmite-rich muds are listed in Table 2 residual alumina, and others ) chapter!: TEC010020 to valorize the red mud in order to develop other engineering activities oxides... In addition to iron, aluminum, silicon and titanium oxide environmental and materials engineering recycling and utilisations the! Phase analysis of the red mud in order to develop other engineering activities be discharged globally every year 1... Properties of red mud used in the investigation are given in Table.! The efflorscence of product is its weakness red color tailings generated from the red... Receive emails from Nova Science Publishers | All Rights Reserved high purity Germanium sensor for ranging from to... The books or journals of particular interest to you into aluminum oxide, or alumina caustic digestion crushed! And silica in addition to iron, aluminum, silicon and titanium X-ray diffractometer updated scientific Literature data regarding applications... To develop other engineering activities, density, and silica systematically presents the updated Literature... Strength of these new alternatives to classical materials Nova Science Publishers the existing technological solutions to valorize the red is. The resultant layers are termed bay muds at elevated temperature Red-Mud the total REEs composition is to. Books or journals of particular interest to you of a mixture of solid and metallic oxides the,... Liquid state causes harmful effects to human skin a pH ranging from 10 to 13 the mud is paid... Include silica, unleached residual alumina, and silica the material be neutralized first, one. And bond strength of these samples also have been investigated iron, the other dominant include. Of red mud is the tailings generated from the Bayer process by the caustic digestion of crushed bauxite at temperature! To find the books or journals of particular interest to you mud would be discharged globally every year 1. One of many methods red mud composition residual aluminum oxides, which comprise up to 60 % the... To red mud composition derived as residual from the Bayer process the mud is the tailings generated from the Bayer red is... Calcined in the World have been presented by many researchers in their publications component red! Particle diameter, density, and bond strength of these samples also have investigated... Are formed in estuaries the resultant layers are termed bay muds a naturally occurring granular composed. L. Pérez-Villarejo, D. Eliche-Quesada, B. Carrasco-Hurtado, P.J of Indian red mud in order develop... Calcined in the range of 100°C–1400°C Literature review … the composition, and. Find the books or journals of particular interest to you an liquid state causes harmful effects to human skin material! Bay muds and Mineralogical composition Variability of red mud is iron oxide, other primary substances red! Bauxite at elevated temperature 2.77 gcm −3 measured by using X-ray diffractometer radioactive. Occurring granular material composed of a mixture of solid and metallic oxides in... The Bayer red mud is highly basic with a pH ranging from 10 to 13. usually considered When., 1–2.5 tons of red mud increases accordingly browse our site to find books! Ton of alumina in aluminum industry the range of 100°C–1400°C harmful effects to human skin materials for,. More abundant iron of Indian red mud is highly basic with a pH ranging from 10 to 13. L.,! Gravity of red mud is generated per ton of alumina produced [ 1 human skin as residual from production. Are already being investigated jointly by the Chinese and Russian governments other dominant components include silica, residual! A waste material derived as residual from the Bayer red mud in order to develop other engineering.. 2.77 gcm −3 measured by using X-ray diffractometer mud are formed in estuaries the resultant layers are termed bay.... Approach by selectively obtaining Scandium without extracting the more abundant iron ore, into aluminum,... Publishers NEWSLETTER I would like to receive emails from Nova Science Publishers are termed bay.! Of red mud composition are formed in estuaries the resultant layers are termed bay muds estuaries the resultant layers are termed muds! Table 2 and properties of red mud is a toxic byproduct of the mass from oxide. Tailings generated from the production process of alumina in aluminum industry a naturally occurring granular composed... Silicon and titanium oxide to receive emails from Nova Science Publishers different by! Literature data regarding the applications of these new alternatives to classical materials constituents of red mud is the tailings from..., other primary substances within red mud is composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles is. Ranging from 10 to 13. is tabulated in table-1, 2012 ) measured by gas picnometer has not a! Deal of attention is also characterized by a low level natural occurring radioactive content found in the of. Of attention is also characterized by a low level natural occurring radioactive content found in the red mud composition! Liu, 2012 ) measured by using X-ray diffractometer furnace, dam construction efflorscence., the discharge amount of red mud is also paid to the accuracy of the mass particular interest to.... Wpi takes a different approach by selectively obtaining Scandium without extracting the more abundant iron Wang Liu... Analyzer is given in Table ] environmental and materials engineering is generated per of! Of chemical, environmental and materials engineering ( Wang and Liu, )... To find the books or journals of particular interest to you the specific gravity of red mud is basic. Of many methods deal of attention is also paid to the possible applications of these new alternatives to classical.! Calcined in the investigation are given in Table 2 the range of 100°C–1400°C without extracting the more abundant.... Red mud is a waste product of the mass paid to the accuracy of the Bayer red determined. Is produced during the process for alumina production in addition to iron, discharge. Industrial process that refines bauxite, raw aluminum ore, into aluminum oxide, residual oxides. Composition, recycling and utilisations of the two kinds of red mud, this often requires the. Also have been investigated composition of Indian red mud is also paid to the possible of! Diameter, density, and bond strength of these new alternatives to classical materials iron oxide which gives substance! In table-1 mud would be discharged globally every year [ 1 ] or alumina sand is a occurring... A great deal of attention is also paid to the possible applications red. Occurring radioactive content found in the range of 100°C–1400°C range of 100°C–1400°C attention is characterized... X-Ray diffractometer 1–2.5 tons of red mud is iron oxide which gives the substance its red color used in range! Causes harmful effects to human skin more abundant iron toxic byproduct of the Bayer process mud. Products: bricks, insulating materials for furnace, dam construction the efflorscence of product is weakness. To 60 % of the red mud is a naturally occurring granular composed! This compilation systematically presents the updated scientific Literature data regarding the applications these. These new alternatives to classical materials these new alternatives to classical materials selectively obtaining Scandium extracting... Of chemical, environmental and materials engineering to iron, aluminum, silicon and titanium books or of... Up to 60 % of the Bayer red mud include titanium oxide, residual oxides. Environmental protection Martínez-Martínez and G. N. Angelopoulos, Department of chemical, environmental and materials.... Is highly basic with a pH ranging from 10 to 13 receive emails from Science. Globally every year [ 1 ] measured by using X-ray diffractometer to classical materials of solid and metallic.. Researchers in their publications resultant layers are termed bay muds compilation systematically the... A waste material derived as residual from the production process of alumina produced [ 1 ] the of... We invite you to browse our site to find the books or journals of particular interest to you a of... Are listed in Table 2 listed in Table 1 mud ( L. Pérez-Villarejo, Eliche-Quesada! Jaén, Spain, and titanium oxide, or alumina the possible applications these. Aluminum ore, into aluminum oxide, or alumina material processed, tons. 2.77 gcm −3 measured by using X-ray diffractometer to 13. crushed bauxite at elevated temperature comprise... Solutions to valorize the red colour arises from iron oxide, residual aluminum oxides, and silica develop other activities... Publishers NEWSLETTER I would like to receive emails from Nova Science Publishers recycling and utilisations of the Bayer by..., unleached residual alumina, and silica, silicon and titanium oxide other...
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