Reader, come home: the reading brain in a digital world. The medium can influence the message: Print‐based versus digital reading influences how people process different types of written information. Given that textual reading is at the same time likely to remain important as a cultural practice, and is undergoing massive change as digital screens are supplementing paper – with the potential to replace it as the dominant substrate – there is an urgent need to investigate what effects such change might have on the reading of different kinds of texts, for different purposes. Perhaps she has been reading two or three. Cultural evolution has been modeled in a number of ways (2). Substrate: paper vs screen‐based reading devices (e.g. by Archbishop Cranmer: The Rt Rev’d Olivia Graham, Bishop of Reading, has been reading a book. This article proposes the need for an integrative, transdisciplinary model of embodied, textual reading accounting for its psychological, ergonomic, technological, social, cultural and evolutionary aspects. International Journal of Art, Culture and Design Technologies. Following on from this, the framework's historical awareness (implied in its sociocultural dimension) should help explain better the effect of a change of reading technology on society. Perhaps most importantly, the linguistic objectification enabled by writing/reading helps us to think (Clark, 2008; Goody and Watt, 1963). In the course of digitisation, the range of substrates for textual reading is being expanded to include a number of screen-based technologies and reading devices, such as e-readers (e.g. Even if such competition is not in itself new, this perception gains new weight as the competition is played out on a single playing field: that of the digital screen. Ergonomic dimension: reading is a physical, multisensory engagement with a device; Attentional/perceptual dimension: reading is allocation of attentional resources; perceptual processing; Cognitive dimension: reading is cognitive, linguistic processing; Emotional dimension: reading is, potentially, an emotionally impactful experience; Phenomenological dimension: reading is a personally meaningful activity; Sociocultural dimension: reading is a socioculturally (and ideologically) appraised and historically contingent activity with sociocultural implications; Cultural–evolutionary dimension: reading is an exocerebral extension of the brain (Bartra. In a matter of a few decades, new reading habits have become widespread. Author Tess Sharpe details a nineteen-year-old Claire Dearing's summer internship on Isla Nublar for the Masrani Corporation, in … It is the merit of historians such as Goody and Watt (1963), Havelock (1981, 1986) and Ong (1982) to have emphasised the technological nature of written language. The New London Group considers literacy as multiple in nature (Cope and Kalantzis, 2000), and the following definition of digital literacy is exemplary: “We define digital literacies as socially situated practices supported by skills, strategies, and stances that enable the representation and understanding of ideas using a range of modalities enabled by digital tools.” (O'Brien and Scharber, 2008, p. 67). Kress has called for increased awareness of the bodily nature of meaning making: Forms of imagination are inseparable from the material characteristics of modes, from their shaping in a society's history and from their consequent interaction with the sensoriness, the sensuousness, of our bodies. Literacy research projects have revealed the complex interactions between peers involved in meaning construction from different media and modalities, and provided insights into the potential uses of digital technologies in a variety of literacy practices (see for instance Carrington and Robinson, 2009). Mackey's apt conjecture about the role of haptics in cognition is evidenced by empirical, experiment‐based research in cognitive neuroscience, particularly in the paradigm called embodied cognition. Does this impact more general reading comprehension? multiple text reading, literary text reading, reading long vs short texts, reading and note‐taking, hypertext reading vs linear text reading and computer/laptop reading vs tablet reading)? Like all scientific theories, the theory of evolution has developed through decades of scientific observations and experimentation. The theory of human evolution is … In the mix of modalities, textuality has so far remained central, especially in an educational context. Coiro, 2003; Coiro and Dobler, 2007; Coiro et al., 2014)? One aspect that gained prominence was the need to read more quickly. Comparing Comprehension of a Long Text Read in Print Book and on Kindle: Where in the Text and When in the Story?. Darwin also stated that organisms must have a common ancestor. Does the substrate (paper and screens) affect cognitive outcomes such as recall and comprehension? Kindle) and tablets (e.g. The first known written communication was via symbols by the cave painters of the Neolithic Age. However, the very pluriformity of perspectives and approaches also threatens to obscure the immense potential for collaboration and dialogue across disciplines and paradigms. 44 Research in the embodied cognition paradigm has shown that the neurophysiological and neuropsychological processes involved in perception, sensorimotor action, and cognition are more closely related than hitherto acknowledged (Calvo and Gomila, 2008; Chemero, 2009; Shapiro, 2010). From that evidence and explanation, we have what scientists and others call today, the Theory of Evolution . The transition of reading from paper to screens may enable transforming a dispersed multidisciplinary field with disciplinary and sub‐disciplinary paradigms existing side by side into a truly transdisciplinary one (Østreng, 2009; Samuels, 2009), in which theoretical perspectives and models from different disciplines are applied, bottom‐up, to shared research questions. 33 For example, Littau (2006) Theories of Reading: Books, Bodies and Bibliomania, Malden, MA, Polity Press, and Dames (2007) The Physiology of the Novel: Reading, Neural Science, and the Form of Victorian Fiction, Oxford University Press. In Evolution of the Word, Borg has produced something of great usefulness. In the course of digitisation, the range of substrates for textual reading is being expanded to include a number of screen‐based technologies and reading devices, such as e‐readers (e.g. Professor Mark Pagel, FRS School of Biological Sciences, Lyle Building, University of Reading, Reading, RG6 6AS, UK Telephone: + 44 (0)118 378 8900 Fax: + 44 (0)118 378 0180 Email: m.pagel@reading.ac.uk Mark Pagel builds statistical models to examine the evolutionary processes imprinted in human behavior, from genomics to the emergence of complex systems -- to culture. A trend in brain evolution according to a study done with mice, chickens, monkeys and apes concluded that more evolved species tend to preserve the structures responsible for basic behaviors. The historical dimension, by indeed “help(ing) us know what we possess and what we need to preserve” should offer guidance in underpinning government literacy policies, reading education and so on. 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