Fluorine and the other halogens in group 7A (17) have seven valence electrons and can obtain an octet by forming one covalent bond. Covalent bond, in chemistry, the interatomic linkage that results from the sharing of an electron pair between two atoms. If the valence of an atom is not satisfied by sharing a single electron pair between atoms, the atoms share more than one electron pair between them. In molecules, there is a pattern to the number of covalent bonds that different atoms can form. Why? Examine the Lewis structure of OF2 below. In a covalent bond, two atoms share one or more electrons. Only when two atoms of the same element form a covalent bond are the shared electrons actually shared equally between the atoms. How does covalent bonding allow atoms in group 6A to satisfy the octet rule? Each of these two chlorine atoms contributes one electron to each other for sharing. There are two types of covalent bonds: polar and nonpolar. The number of bonds an element forms in a covalent compound is determined by the number of electrons it needs to reach octet. How is a covalent bond formed between two atoms? Draw the Lewis diagram for the covalent bond in the H2 molecule. Predict the formula of a compound between tellurium and hydrogen. It has seven valence electrons. By each contributing one electron, they make the following molecule: In this molecule, the hydrogen atom does not have nonbonding electrons, while the fluorine atom has six nonbonding electrons (three lone electron pairs). 2. The electronegativities of non-metals are very close to each other. Covalent bonds form when atoms share electrons. Bonds between carbon atoms are covalent bonds. Draw the Lewis diagram for the covalent bond in the Br2 molecule. For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. Here, the oxygen atom shares one electron with each hydrogen atom. Rather than being shared, they are considered to belong to a single atom. Nonmetal atoms frequently form covalent bonds with other nonmetal atoms. In polar covalent bonds, such as that between hydrogen and oxygen atoms, the electrons are not transferred from one atom to the other as they are in an ionic bond. The number of bonds that an atom can form can often be predicted from the number of electrons needed to reach an octet (eight valence electrons). Silicon, carbon, germanium, and a few other elements form covalently bonded solids. Lewis, who described the formation of such bonds as resulting from the tendencies of certain atoms to combine with one another in order for both to have the electronic structure of a corresponding noble-gas atom. With two bonding pairs and two lone pairs, the oxygen atom has now completed its octet. If the electron is shared equally between the atoms forming a covalent bond, then the bond is said to be nonpolar. For example, each atom of a group 4A (14) element has four electrons in its outermost shell and therefore requires four more electrons to reach an octet. [ "article:topic", "covalent bond", "showtoc:no", "license:ccbyncsa", "transcluded:yes", "source-chem-16127", "source[1]-chem-168714" ], Draw the Lewis diagram for the covalent bond in the H, Draw the Lewis diagram for the covalent bond in the Br, Draw the Lewis diagram for the covalent bonding in H, Draw the Lewis diagram for the covalent bonding in CF, Draw the Lewis diagram for the covalent bonding in PCl. When two chlorine atoms form a chlorine molecule, they share one pair of electrons. In the Lewis structure, the number of bonds formed by an element in a neutral compound is the same as the number of unpaired electrons it must share with other atoms to complete its octet of electrons. Polar and Nonpolar Covalent Bonds. A covalent bond is formed between two atoms by sharing electrons. 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